Category Archives: Bible Characters

February 5 – King David

The name of David shows up 27 times in the Catechism of the Catholic Church. The posting of the Catechism at the Vatican website enables easy generation of a list of those 27 times, and this is a screen shot of the list which has hot links to the paragraphs. The list can be generated HERE.

 

Here are four of the Catechism statements about David (and Jesus), all supported by Bible references covering the promise of Jesus, forgiveness, prayer, and the identity of Jesus.

439 – Many Jews and even certain Gentiles who shared their hope recognized in Jesus the fundamental attributes of the messianic “Son of David“, promised by God to Israel. Jesus accepted his rightful title of Messiah, though with some reserve because it was understood by some of his contemporaries in too human a sense, as essentially political.

1481 – The Byzantine Liturgy recognizes several formulas of absolution, in the form of invocation, which admirably express the mystery of forgiveness: “May the same God, who through the Prophet Nathan forgave David when he confessed his sins, who forgave Peter when he wept bitterly, the prostitute when she washed his feet with her tears, the Pharisee, and the prodigal son, through me, a sinner, forgive you both in this life and in the next and enable you to appear before his awe-inspiring tribunal without condemnation, he who is blessed for ever and ever. Amen.”

2616 – Prayer to Jesus is answered by him already during his ministry, through signs that anticipate the power of his death and Resurrection: Jesus hears the prayer of faith, expressed in words (the leper, Jairus, the Canaanite woman, the good thief) or in silence (the bearers of the paralytic, the woman with a hemorrhage who touches his clothes, the tears and ointment of the sinful woman). The urgent request of the blind men, “Have mercy on us, Son of David” or “Jesus, Son of David, have mercy on me!” has-been renewed in the traditional prayer to Jesus known as the Jesus Prayer: “Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, have mercy on me, a sinner!”86 Healing infirmities or forgiving sins, Jesus always responds to a prayer offered in faith: “Your faith has made you well; go in peace.”

590 – Only the divine identity of Jesus’ person can justify so absolute a claim as “He who is not with me is against me”; and his saying that there was in him “something greater than Jonah,. . . greater than Solomon”, something “greater than the Temple”; his reminder that David had called the Messiah his Lord, and his affirmations, “Before Abraham was, I AM”, and even “I and the Father are one.”

It is quite reasonable that the Catechism references to David are from the Bible because the Bible, with three minor exceptions, is our only source of information about David. The online searchable Bible linked at this website, quickly provides a list of the 57 New Testament mentions of David.

He is mentioned 944 times in the Old Testament, but that may not be surprising since most are in 1, 2 Samuel (470) and 1, 2 Kings (91), 1, 2 Chronicles (223), and Psalms (90). David was, after all, a hero, the greatest King of Israel, and a musician to boot.

But after those history books and Psalms, the song book of the people, we next find him most often in the writings of the prophets Isaiah (13) and Jeremiah (15), prophets living in the Old Covenant and foreseeing the New Covenant. The promise of the Messiah is closely linked to David.

Clearly, the belief of those inspired to write Sacred Scripture and the authors of the Catechism is that David, Son of Jesse and lover of God is an important figure in Salvation History.

Theology and the place of David in the Story of Salvation History are the focus of the Biblical accounts of the life of David. But isn’t it interesting that recorded secular history of the Middle East has nothing to say about such an important ruler and leader as David except three obscure references including one, by an 8th or 9th century king of Damascus, to the “House of David?” The three historical references are included in the King David Wikipedia article, an excellent and well-organized summary of what the Bible says about David and about how he is viewed today by Islam, Judaism, and Christianity, the three Abrahamic religions. Check out the art in the article, one example of which is the depiction of David spying Bathsheba at the top of this post.

Two personal things we clearly learn from the life of David are our need for a Savior and the importance of loving God (and behaving ourselves).

 

 

 

Jan 22 -David and Goliath, and the Four Senses of Scripture

david-goliath-82604-gallery

Nice picture from LDS Website.

On a website called Integrated Catholic Life, there is a post about using the four senses of Scripture to find the full meaning, to us 21st century beings, of the ancient story of David and Goliath, a story probably committed, in ancient Hebrew, to animal skin, about 500 years before Christ describing something that had happened about 500 years earlier.

Here is what the Catechism of the Catholic Church has to say about the four senses of Scripture, literal, allegorical, moral, and anagogical:

four senses

The story of David and Goliath is a favorite and tells us something about the earthly ancestry of Jesus. Beyond the simple story, it includes a shepherd tending and defending his sheep, a 40-day challenge from a follower of Baal, and an army of “chosen people” fearful and reluctant to step forward. Then a lad, an underdog, steps forward quickly in faith with the only skills and tools he has and confronts the enemy. And, finally, there is victory of good over evil.

The blog post by Steven Jonathan Rummelsburg on application of the “Four Senses” Bible study principles to the story of David and Goliath seems clear and helpful and not too long, an excellent followup to and reinforcement of Father Linsky’s discussion on Wednesday. It is available for reading HERE.

 

Preacher & Pastor Paul

About St. Paul

The story of energetic, persistent, faithful, intelligent, and well-educated Roman citizen, Saul or Paul of Tarsus, can be an inspiration and example for all of us. A former persecutor of Jesus (the Church), he sets the perfect example of confession, repentance, and full conversion to the Christian faith. He was theologian, traveling evangelist, church planter, and pastor, all rolled into one. In his own words:

The Second Journey

Father Linsky led a discussion about a perfect example of St. Paul’s method of evangelization, his speech to skeptics of left and right, universalists and Calvinists, epicurians and stoics, at the Areopagus in Athens, Greece. This was on Paul’s second of four long and dangerous journeys spreading the Gospel of Jesus. Below is a snip of an interactive map which documents what is said in the book of Acts about each visit on that journey. 

Athens and the Aeropagus

(So far, I have been offered “asparagus” and “esophagus” as corrections to my spelling of aeropagus.) Here is a link to a couple of informative and interesting paragraphs about the location, history, and use of the Aeropagus including the photo below. Note the plaque in the photo. It contains the words of St. Paul’s speech as recorded in Acts 17.

St. Paul’s Audience at the Aeropagus

Here, from the 1st Century writings of Petronius, can be found the quote Fr. Linsky shared about the culture of the people hearing the Gospel from St. Paul: “Truly our neighborhood is so well stocked with deities to hand, you will easier meet with a god than a man.” I doubt it rhymed in Latin so maybe the hand-man connection is just accidental.

As Fr. Linsky said, there were two major schools of philosophy in 1st Century Athens, epicurianism and stoicism. Below, from this website, are two excellent short videos (15 and 8 minutes) explaining stoicism and epicurianism. It is hard to believe these are free online. I have never taken a philosophy course but believe these videos must be worth at least a semester of an introductory course in the subject. It is interesting how pertinent and timely these ideas and issues are even in the 21st century.

The Message of St. Paul to These Seekers of Truth

So, St. Paul knew the interests of his audience and delivered to them what they sought, the TRUTH.  And, though we have no discussion in Revelation of a letter to the Church at Athens or of any Epistles of St. Paul to the Athenians, and although Athens is not mentioned in the Bible except in connection with St. Paul’s visit there, we know that the seeds were planted and a Church established in Athens because “some did join him and became believers.”

 

 

 

 

January 23 – Melchizedek

Ancient Hebrew Characteristics and Translation

Here is a fascinating short article on the characteristics of and difficulties in translating ancient Hebrew into modern English. The writer is trying to tease you into taking their free lessons, and that would be a worthwhile hobby if you have the interest. Here is the link to the article.

 

Hebrew Bible Commentary on Melchizedek – Key points

Here is what the Jewish Study Bible has to say about the passage describing Melchizedek showing up with bread and wine and collecting a tithe from Abram.

  • Salem is probably Jerusalem. This is the only mention of Salem in the Torah.
  • Incident is an abrupt interruption of narrative about the King of Sodom approaching Abram.
  • Melchizedek refers to “God Most High” in his blessing.
  • Abram changes the term to “Lord God Most High” in his response.
  • Perhaps established antiquity of Israel’s holiest site and priestly and royal dynasties associated with it.

(Abram’s name was not changed to Abraham until he was 99 years old and was promised a son by Sarai (whose name was changed to Sarah) in Genesis 17)

Melchizedek in Sacred Scripture

The name Melchizedek appears ten times in Sacred Scripture, once in Genesis 14, once in Psalm 110 (Except in the Jewish Study Bible), twice in Hebrews 5, once in Hebrews 6, and five times in Hebrews 7.

In Genesis 14:18-20 Abraham had just enjoyed a military victory, recovering possessions and rescuing relatives, when Melchizedek showed up with food and a blessing.

Melchizedek, king of Salem, brought out bread and wine. He was a priest of God Most High. He blessed Abram with these words:
“Blessed be Abram by God Most High, the creator of heaven and earth;
And blessed be God Most High, who delivered your foes into your hand.
Then Abram gave him a tenth of everything.

In Psalm 110:4, Melchizedek is referred to in describing a manner of priesthood. The name is not included in that verse in The Jewish Study Bible: “The LORD has sworn and will not relent, “You are a priest forever, a rightful king by My decree.”  The name “Melchizedek” does show up in  footnote to the verse.

The Lord has sworn and will not waver: “You are a priest forever in the manner of Melchizedek.”

In Hebrews 5:6, the phrase from Psalm 110 is quoted.

just as he says in another place: “You are a priest forever according to the order of Melchizedek.”

In Hebrews 6:20, Jesus is connected to the priesthood of Melchizedek.

“…where Jesus has entered on our behalf as forerunner, becoming high priest forever according to the order of Melchizedek.”

In Hebrews 7:1-17, the writer offers more explanation about Melchizedek’s name, his background, his future, and his significance. This one is a bit mysterious.

This “Melchizedek, king of Salem and priest of God Most High,” “met Abraham as he returned from his defeat of the kings” and “blessed him.” And Abraham apportioned to him “a tenth of everything.” His name first means righteous king, and he was also “king of Salem,” that is, king of peace.  Without father, mother, or ancestry, without beginning of days or end of life, thus made to resemble the Son of God, he remains a priest forever.  See how great he is to whom the patriarch “Abraham [indeed] gave a tenth” of his spoils. The descendants of Levi who receive the office of priesthood have a commandment according to the law to exact tithes from the people, that is, from their brothers, although they also have come from the loins of Abraham. But he who was not of their ancestry received tithes from Abraham and blessed him who had received the promises. Unquestionably, a lesser person is blessed by a greater. In the one case, mortal men receive tithes; in the other, a man of whom it is testified that he lives on. One might even say that Levi himself, who receives tithes, was tithed through Abraham, for he was still in his father’s loins when Melchizedek met him. If, then, perfection came through the levitical priesthood, on the basis of which the people received the law, what need would there still have been for another priest to arise according to the order of Melchizedek, and not reckoned according to the order of Aaron? When there is a change of priesthood, there is necessarily a change of law as well. Now he of whom these things are said belonged to a different tribe, of which no member ever officiated at the altar. It is clear that our Lord arose from Judah, and in regard to that tribe Moses said nothing about priests. It is even more obvious if another priest is raised up after the likeness of Melchizedek, who has become so, not by a law expressed in a commandment concerning physical descent but by the power of a life that cannot be destroyed. For it is testified: “You are a priest forever according to the order of Melchizedek.”

And that is all we find in Sacred Scripture about Melchizedek. There are some interesting footnotes in the NABRE New Testament for the Hebrews verses, but I’m not going to copy them here. Look them up if interested.

 

Melchizedek or Melchisedek in The Catechism

In the Catechism, Melchisedek is mentioned once and Melchizedek four times. The emphasis is on The Eucharist and The Priesthood.

Paragraph 58 The covenant with Noah remains in force during the times of the Gentiles, until the universal proclamation of the Gospel. The Bible venerates several great figures among the Gentiles: Abel the just, the king-priest Melchisedek – a figure of Christ – and the upright “Noah, Daniel, and Job”. Scripture thus expresses the heights of sanctity that can be reached by those who live according to the covenant of Noah, waiting for Christ to “gather into one the children of God who are scattered abroad”.

Paragraph 1333 At the heart of the Eucharistic celebration are the bread and wine that, by the words of Christ and the invocation of the Holy Spirit, become Christ’s Body and Blood. Faithful to the Lord’s command the Church continues to do, in his memory and until his glorious return, what he did on the eve of his Passion: “He took bread….” “He took the cup filled with wine….” the signs of bread and wine become, in a way surpassing understanding, the Body and Blood of Christ; they continue also to signify the goodness of creation. Thus in the Offertory we give thanks to the Creator for bread and wine, fruit of the “work of human hands,” but above all as “fruit of the earth” and “of the vine” – gifts of the Creator. the Church sees in the gesture of the king-priest Melchizedek, who “brought out bread and wine,” a prefiguring of her own offering.

Paragraph 1350 The presentation of the offerings (the Offertory). Then, sometimes in procession, the bread and wine are brought to the altar; they will be offered by the priest in the name of Christ in the Eucharistic sacrifice in which they will become his body and blood. It is the very action of Christ at the Last Supper – “taking the bread and a cup.” “The Church alone offers this pure oblation to the Creator, when she offers what comes forth from his creation with thanksgiving.” The presentation of the offerings at the altar takes up the gesture of Melchizedek and commits the Creator’s gifts into the hands of Christ who, in his sacrifice, brings to perfection all human attempts to offer sacrifices.

Paragraph 1544 Everything that the priesthood of the Old Covenant prefigured finds its fulfillment in Christ Jesus, the “one mediator between God and men.” The Christian tradition considers Melchizedek, “priest of God Most High,” as a prefiguration of the priesthood of Christ, the unique “high priest after the order of Melchizedek“; “holy, blameless, unstained,” “by a single offering he has perfected for all time those who are sanctified,” that is, by the unique sacrifice of the cross.

 

March 28th – Why, Judas, Why?

Father Linsky lead the group in a discussion of betrayal and of the reason(s) that Judas Iscariot chose to betray Jesus.

A search of the NT for words spoken by Judas finds 54 attributed to him. Although his seven last words are in the form of a confession of sin, it is interesting to note the absence of any confession of belief in Jesus. So, maybe that is the reason for the betrayal…he just never believed and had his own agenda. Here are the 54 words, hopefully in chronological order:

“Why was this oil not sold for three hundred days’ wages and given to the poor?” John 12:5  “What are you willing to give me if I hand him over to you?” – Matthew 26:15  “The man I shall kiss is the one; arrest him and lead him away securely.” Mark 14:44  “Hail, Rabbi!” – Matthew 26:49  “I have sinned in betraying innocent blood.” – Matthew 27:4

Key Point: There is one primary thing Judas never said, as far as we know from the New Testament: “I believe that thou art the Christ, the Son of God.”

Below are the passages from the NABRE containing the 22 mentions in the New Testament of the name Judas, five times in Matthew, three in Mark, four in Luke, two in Acts, and eight in John.  These are screen shots of the online version as explained below.

Three of the 22 mentions are in very similar but not identical synoptic gospel listings of the twelve apostles. All list Simon Peter first and Judas the betrayer last but there are interesting differences in order otherwise.

The next three mentions of Judas Iscariot are in parallel synoptic Gospel accounts of his visit to the chief priests and his offer to betray Jesus. There are interesting differences, especially the Luke comment about Satan entering into Judas at this point.

The next four mentions are also from parallel synoptic gospel accounts about the kiss of betrayal. There are interesting differences here also. Judas is mentioned one time each in Matthew and Mark, and twice in Luke so this brings the total to 10. It is interesting that, in Matthew’s account, Jesus addresses Judas as “Friend.”

Only Matthew gives an account of return of the thirty pieces of silver, suicide of Judas, and purchase of the new burial ground for foreigners.

It is interesting that St. Luke, author of Acts, gives a very different account of the use of the thirty pieces of silver and the death of Judas Iscariot.

Just to stick with the words of St. Luke in Acts before going to the Gospel of John, the name Judas shows up once in the account of the casting of lots to select Matthias as the replacement for Judas. The name Matthias shows up only these two times in the New Testament.

John, the last of the Gospels, probably written around sixty years after the resurrection, accounts for the last eight mentions of the name Judas. It is only there that we learn about his “concern” for the poor and his poor stewardship of the money bag. And, we get more details about the Last Supper.

Note the theologically significant “I AM‘ in John 18:5.

Note: All the screen shots of New Testament passages are from the online version of the New American Bible (Revised Edition) (NABRE). This easily searchable version is linked at stpetersmpg.blog and can be found HERE

For more information about the Gospels, the differences among them, help in understanding them, and reconciliation of Scripture and Tradition, supplementary material in The New Testament: New Catholic Version (NCV), Copyright 2015 by Catholic Book Publishing Company is very helpful.