The name of David shows up 27 times in the Catechism of the Catholic Church. The posting of the Catechism at the Vatican website enables easy generation of a list of those 27 times, and this is a screen shot of the list which has hot links to the paragraphs. The list can be generated HERE.
Here are four of the Catechism statements about David (and Jesus), all supported by Bible references covering the promise of Jesus, forgiveness, prayer, and the identity of Jesus.
439 – Many Jews and even certain Gentiles who shared their hope recognized in Jesus the fundamental attributes of the messianic “Son of David“, promised by God to Israel. Jesus accepted his rightful title of Messiah, though with some reserve because it was understood by some of his contemporaries in too human a sense, as essentially political.
1481 – The Byzantine Liturgy recognizes several formulas of absolution, in the form of invocation, which admirably express the mystery of forgiveness: “May the same God, who through the Prophet Nathan forgave David when he confessed his sins, who forgave Peter when he wept bitterly, the prostitute when she washed his feet with her tears, the Pharisee, and the prodigal son, through me, a sinner, forgive you both in this life and in the next and enable you to appear before his awe-inspiring tribunal without condemnation, he who is blessed for ever and ever. Amen.”
2616 – Prayer to Jesus is answered by him already during his ministry, through signs that anticipate the power of his death and Resurrection: Jesus hears the prayer of faith, expressed in words (the leper, Jairus, the Canaanite woman, the good thief) or in silence (the bearers of the paralytic, the woman with a hemorrhage who touches his clothes, the tears and ointment of the sinful woman). The urgent request of the blind men, “Have mercy on us, Son of David” or “Jesus, Son of David, have mercy on me!” has-been renewed in the traditional prayer to Jesus known as the Jesus Prayer: “Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, have mercy on me, a sinner!”86 Healing infirmities or forgiving sins, Jesus always responds to a prayer offered in faith: “Your faith has made you well; go in peace.”
590 – Only the divine identity of Jesus’ person can justify so absolute a claim as “He who is not with me is against me”; and his saying that there was in him “something greater than Jonah,. . . greater than Solomon”, something “greater than the Temple”; his reminder that David had called the Messiah his Lord, and his affirmations, “Before Abraham was, I AM”, and even “I and the Father are one.”
It is quite reasonable that the Catechism references to David are from the Bible because the Bible, with three minor exceptions, is our only source of information about David. The online searchable Bible linked at this website, quickly provides a list of the 57 New Testament mentions of David.
He is mentioned 944 times in the Old Testament, but that may not be surprising since most are in 1, 2 Samuel (470) and 1, 2 Kings (91), 1, 2 Chronicles (223), and Psalms (90). David was, after all, a hero, the greatest King of Israel, and a musician to boot.
But after those history books and Psalms, the song book of the people, we next find him most often in the writings of the prophets Isaiah (13) and Jeremiah (15), prophets living in the Old Covenant and foreseeing the New Covenant. The promise of the Messiah is closely linked to David.
Clearly, the belief of those inspired to write Sacred Scripture and the authors of the Catechism is that David, Son of Jesse and lover of God is an important figure in Salvation History.
Theology and the place of David in the Story of Salvation History are the focus of the Biblical accounts of the life of David. But isn’t it interesting that recorded secular history of the Middle East has nothing to say about such an important ruler and leader as David except three obscure references including one, by an 8th or 9th century king of Damascus, to the “House of David?” The three historical references are included in the King David Wikipedia article, an excellent and well-organized summary of what the Bible says about David and about how he is viewed today by Islam, Judaism, and Christianity, the three Abrahamic religions. Check out the art in the article, one example of which is the depiction of David spying Bathsheba at the top of this post.
Two personal things we clearly learn from the life of David are our need for a Savior and the importance of loving God (and behaving ourselves).