October 17, 2018 – Saints, Martyrs, Fathers, and Doctors of the Church

St. Ignatius of Antioch, Saint, Martyr, Father, but Not a Doctor

You can read about St. Ignatius of Antioch at Franciscan Media. Below is a clip of the major contents reviewing what we learned from Fr. Linsky this morning.

Letters of St. Ignatius of Antioch

Here is a handy link to the seven letters of St. Ignatius. These are provided at the EWTN Website. They are fairly short and easy to read.

Reading the Church Fathers

This is a bit off the subject, but the question of Church Fathers came up during the discussion. I have often heard or read the recommendation that I should read the Church Fathers. I think that for me it would be an insurmountable task. Here is the whole collection, from the first 800 years, as preserved in 38 volumes and available from Amazon for roughly $1000.

A simpler, less burdensome, and more affordable approach would be to buy this Kindle version for $2.99, but even that seems unmanageable and unconquerable to me.

The following authors (alphabetical order) are included in this collection: Alexander of Alexandria, Alexander of Lycopolis, Ambrose, Aphrahat, Archelaus, Aristides the Philosopher, Arnobius, Athanasius, Athenagoras, Augustine of Hippo, Bardesanes, Barnabas, Basil the Great, Caius, Clement of Alexandria, Clement of Rome, Commodianus, Cyprian of Carthage, Cyril of Jerusalem, Dionysius of Rome, Dionysius the Great, Ephraim the Syrian, Eusebius of Caesarea, Gennadius of Marseilles, Gregory the Great, Pope, Gregory Nazianzen, Gregory of Nyssa, Gregory Thaumaturgus, Hermas, Hilary of Poitiers, Hippolytus, Ignatius of Antioch, Irenaeus of Lyons, Jerome, John of Damascus, John Cassian, John Chrysostom, Julius Africanus, Justin Martyr, Lactantius, Leo the Great, Pope
Malchion, Mar Jacob, Mathetes, Methodius, Minucius Felix, Moses of Chorene, Novatian, Origen, Pamphilus, Papias, Peter of Alexandria, Polycarp, Rufinus, Socrates cholasticus, Sozomen, Sulpitius,Severus, Tatian, Tertullian, Theodoret, Theodotus, Theophilus, Venantius, Victorinus, Vincent of Lérins

Doctors of the Church

I found a list of 36 Doctors of the Church at Catholic Online. Here is what they say about Doctors of the Church, some of whom are Church Fathers and some not:

This is a very special title accorded by the Church to certain saints. This title indicates that the writings and preachings of such a person are useful to Christians “in any age of the Church.” Such men and women are also particularly known for the depth of understanding and the orthodoxy of their theological teachings. While the writings of the Doctors are often considered inspired by the Holy Spirit; this does not mean they are infallible, but it does mean that they contributed significantly to the formulation of Christian teaching in at least one area.”

The Catechism contains references to the writings of many but not all Doctors of the Church.

Here  is the list in alphabetical order and then in chronological order by date of death. In that chart, it is interesting that there are groupings around 400 AD, 1200 AD, and 1600 AD.

It is interesting history and theology. If it all gets to be just too much, there is always the New Testament with the writings of Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, Peter, and Paul.

October 10, 2018: All Nations

Future of Secondary Education?

Khan Academy, founded by Sal Khan, who holds three degrees from MIT and an MBA from Harvard,  seems to me to be an incredible new company setting the pace for online education. I expect this team will be a large part of the solution to soaring costs, and associated student debt, of traditional brick and mortar institutions with luxurious student housing.

Below is a helpful 15 minute Khan Academy video presenting an unbiased and respectful view of St. Paul and the early church. The lecturer is using some inexpensive exhibits and a pleasant voice to tell the story just as told in the New Testament. He covers most of the subjects we discussed Wednesday morning including circumcision, Gentiles, and Galatia.

You can check out the Khan Academy website here. You may find some courses to take, “For free. For everyone. Forever.”

All Nations

Part of our Wednesday morning discussion focused on the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob being a blessing to “all nations,” a theme running through Sacred Scripture. Here are pertinent quotes from the Old and New Testaments containing the phrase “all nations,” or, in the first case, “communities.”

The Patriarchs

To Abraham: Genesis 12:2-3  “I will make of you a great nation, and I will bless you; I will make your name great, so that you will be a blessing.  I will bless those who bless you and curse those who curse you. All the communities of the earth shall find blessing in you.”

To Isaac:  Genesis 26:4  I will make your descendants as numerous as the stars in the sky and give them all these lands, and in your descendants all the nations of the earth shall find blessing—

To Jacob: Genesis 28:14 These shall be as plentiful as the dust of the earth, and through them you shall spread out east and west, north and south. In you and your descendants all the nations of the earth shall find blessing.

The Kings (Solomon only)

1 Kings 5:14 Men came to hear Solomon’s wisdom from all nations, sent by all the kings of the earth who had heard of his wisdom.

 The Prophets

Isaiah 2:2 In days to come, The mountain of the LORD’S house shall be established as the highest mountain and raised above the hills. All nations shall stream toward it;
Isaiah 14:9 The nether world below is all astir preparing for your coming; It awakens the shades to greet you, all the leaders of the earth; It has the kings of all nations rise from their thrones.
Jeremiah 3:17 At that time they will call Jerusalem the LORD’S throne; there all nations will be gathered together to honor the name of the LORD at Jerusalem, and they will walk no longer in their hardhearted wickedness.
Jeremiah 27:7 All nations shall serve him and his son and his grandson, until the time of his land, too, shall come. Then it in turn shall serve great nations and mighty kings.
Zechariah 12:9 On that day I will seek the destruction of all nations that come against Jerusalem.
Malachi 3:12 Then all nations will call you blessed, for you will be a delightful land, says the LORD of hosts.

The Psalmist

Psalm 72:11 May all kings bow before him, all nations serve him.
Psalm 113:4 High above all nations is the LORD; above the heavens God’s glory.

The Evangelists

Matthew 24:9, 14 Then they will hand you over to persecution, and they will kill you. You will be hated by all nations because of my name….And this gospel of the kingdom will be preached throughout the world as a witness to all nations, and then the end will come.
Matthew 28:19 Go, therefore, and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the holy Spirit, (The Great Commission)
Mark 13:10 But the gospel must first be preached to all nations.

St. Paul (Last verse of Epistle to Romans)

Romans 16:25-27  Now to him who can strengthen you, according to my gospel and the proclamation of Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of the mystery kept secret for long ages  but now manifested through the prophetic writings and, according to the command of the eternal God, made known to all nations to bring about the obedience of faith, to the only wise God, through Jesus Christ be glory forever and ever. Amen.)

Heading for the Rio Grande

And, Tom Gregory announced his new job in McAllen, Texas. Here is the location. rio

 

The website of his new place of service: Juan Diego Academy.diego

Justification and Martin Luther

The Word from The Word (Sacred Scripture)

Luke 18:9-14 He then addressed this parable to those who were convinced of their own righteousness and despised everyone else. “Two people went up to the temple area to pray; one was a Pharisee and the other was a tax collector. The Pharisee took up his position and spoke this prayer to himself, ‘O God, I thank you that I am not like the rest of humanity– greedy, dishonest, adulterous– or even like this tax collector. I fast twice a week, and I pay tithes on my whole income.’ But the tax collector stood off at a distance and would not even raise his eyes to heaven but beat his breast and prayed, ‘O God, be merciful to me a sinner.’ I tell you, the latter went home justified, not the former; for everyone who exalts himself will be humbled, and the one who humbles himself will be exalted.”

Romans 5:1-2 Therefore, since we have been justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have gained access (by faith) to this grace in which we stand, and we boast in hope of the glory of God.

Ephesians 2:8 For by grace you have been saved through faith, and this is not from you; it is the gift of God;

The Catechism (Read the whole section HERE.)

Paragraph 1987: The grace of the Holy Spirit has the power to justify us, that is, to cleanse us from our sins and to communicate to us “the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ” and through Baptism:34

Paragraph 1993: Justification establishes cooperation between God’s grace and man’s freedom. On man’s part it is expressed by the assent of faith to the Word of God, which invites him to conversion, and in the cooperation of charity with the prompting of the Holy Spirit who precedes and preserves his assent:

Paragraph 1994:  Justification is the most excellent work of God’s love made manifest in Christ Jesus and granted by the Holy Spirit. It is the opinion of St. Augustine that “the justification of the wicked is a greater work than the creation of heaven and earth,” because “heaven and earth will pass away but the salvation and justification of the elect . . . will not pass away.”43 He holds also that the justification of sinners surpasses the creation of the angels in justice, in that it bears witness to a greater mercy.

The Joint Declaration (Lutheran-Catholic) (Read it HERE.)

Here is a key paragraph, a Vatican website screen shot,  from the “Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification” by the Lutheran World Federation and the Catholic Church.

Martin Luther

What little I know about Martin Luther comes mostly from The Story of Christianity, Volume 2, Chapter 2: Martin Luther: Pilgrimage to Reformation. The history book is by Justo L. Gonzalez who has a PhD in historical theology from Yale and has been a professor of church history at Emory, United Seminary, and the Interdenominational Theological Center in Atlanta. Here are some key facts/turning points in Luther’s life.

1505 – Entered Augustinian monastery at age 21 where he suffered “an overpowering sense of his own sinfulness.” He never felt he had completely confessed all his sins. He was ordered to prepare to teach Sacred Scripture at Wittenberg University.
1512 – Received doctorate in theology
1515 – Concluded, based on his study, that the “righteousness of God” is given to those who “live by faith” simply because God wishes to give it. Therefore both faith and justification, he argued, are “the work of God, a free gift to sinners.”
1517 – Took strong position, as part of his “95 Theses,” against the sale of indulgences by a guy raising money for construction of The Basilica of St. Peter (The one in Rome). The sales guy, John Tetzel, had a little ditty: “As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs.” The infamous 95 Theses, thanks to recently invented and rapidly expanding printing technology (Twitter of the 15th century), were widely distributed and got to Pope Leo X. Pope Leo turned the matter over to the Augustinians, Luther’s order, but they generally supported him. Pope Leo then turned the matter over to Cardinal Cajetan who demanded that Luther recant. Luther refused.
1521 – Luther was called before the Diet of Worms by Emperor and Pope and, when asked to recant, declared in German, “My conscience is a prisoner of God’s Word. I cannot and will not recant, for to disobey one’s conscience is neither just nor safe. God help me. Amen.” From that point, he was an outcast from the church.

The Reformation took on different characters, and different theologies, under leadership of Luther, Zwingli, Calvin, Henry VIII, and Knox. Anabaptists differed from them all because of their belief in baptism only for believers and by immersion. Many died in the ensuing conflicts during a time when church and state were hopelessly entangled. According to Gonzalez, “The martyrs were many – probably more than those who died during the three centuries of persecution before the time of Constantine.”

Luther was a believer in the Real Presence and the importance of Mary in the Salvation story. He is quoted as saying that he would rather partake of the Blood of Jesus with the Pope (whom he strongly disliked) than to sip mere wine with Zwingli (Swiss reformer who denied the Real Presence.)

Luther is infamous for anti-Semitic rants and other strange behavior in his waning years. Perhaps he was suffering from dementia or other mental problems.

Most scholars would support the idea that Luther had no interest in founding a Lutheran Church but only wanted to reform the True Church.

Pope Leo X

There is an extensive article in New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia about Pope Leo X.  One paragraph from that article addresses his role in the Reformation and is copied below. You will find the paragraph quoted at this link. It is the third paragraph from the end of the article.

“The most important occurrence of Leo’s pontificate and that of gravest consequence to the Church was the Reformation, which began in 1517. We cannot enter into a minute account of this movement, the remote cause of which lay in the religious, political, and social conditions of Germany. It is certain, however, that the seeds of discontent amid which Luther threw his firebrand had been germinating for centuries. The immediate cause was bound up with the odious greed for money displayed by the Roman Curia, and shows how far short all efforts at reform had hitherto fallen. Albert of Brandenburg, already Archbishop of Magdeburg, received in addition the Archbishopric of Mainz and the Bishopric of Hallerstadt, but in return was obliged to collect 10,000 ducats, which he was taxed over and above the usual confirmation fees. To indemnify hiim, and to make it possible to discharge these obligations Rome permitted him to have preached in his territory the plenary indulgence promised all those who contributed to the new St. Peter’s; he was allowed to keep one half the returns, a transaction which brought dishonour on all concerned in it. Added to this, abuses occurred during the preaching of the Indulgence. The money contributions, a mere accessory, were frequently the chief object, and the “Indulgences for the Dead” became a vehicle of inadmissible teachings. That Leo X, in the most serious of all the crises which threatened the Church, should fail to prove the proper guide for her, is clear enough from what has been related above. He recognized neither the gravity of the situation nor the underlying causes of the revolt. Vigorous measures of reform might have proved an efficacious antidote, but the pope was deeply entangled in political affairs and allowed the imperial election to overshadow the revolt of Luther; moreover, he gave himself up unrestrainedly to his pleasures and failed to grasp fully the duties of his high office.”

 

The LORD, Who HE Is, and What HE Does (According to The Psalms)

Here are a couple of quotes from the Psalms about what The LORD is and does. Note the format of the word LORD, all caps with L larger than the other three letters. (I don’t see how to do that in Word Press so I have used screen shots below to illustrate the point.)

Psalm 130:6 – Something He IS.

Psalm 145:8 – Something He DOES.

Psalm 1:6  The LORD watches over the way of the just, but the way of the wicked leads to ruin.
Psalm 9:10  The LORD is a stronghold for the oppressed, stronghold in times of trouble.
Psalm 10:16  The LORD is king forever; the nations have vanished from God’s land.
Psalm 11:5  The LORD tests the good and the bad, hates those who love violence,
Psalm 11:7  The LORD is just and loves just deeds;
Psalm 14:2  The LORD looks down from heaven upon the human race, To see if even one is wise, if even one seeks God.
Psalm 29:10  The LORD sits enthroned above the flood! The LORD reigns as king forever!
Psalm 31:24  The LORD protects the loyal, but repays the arrogant in full.
Psalm 33:10 The LORD foils the plan of nations, frustrates the designs of peoples.
Psalm 33:5  The LORD loves justice and right and fills the earth with goodness.
Psalm 34:16  The LORD has eyes for the just and ears for their cry.
Psalm 34:19  The LORD is close to the brokenhearted, saves those whose spirit is crushed.
Psalm 34:23  The LORD redeems loyal servants;
Psalm 37:18  The LORD watches over the days of the blameless;
Psalm 92:16  The LORD is just; our rock, in whom there is no wrong.
Psalm 93:1  The LORD is king, robed with majesty; the LORD is robed, girded with might.
Psalm 97:1  The LORD is king; let the earth rejoice;
Psalm 97:10  The LORD loves those who hate evil, protects the lives of the faithful, rescues them from the hand of the wicked.
Psalm 99:1  The LORD is king, the peoples tremble;
Psalm 103:6  The LORD does righteous deeds, brings justice to all the oppressed.
Psalm 105:7   The LORD is our God who rules the whole earth.
Psalm 113:7  The LORD raises the needy from the dust, lifts the poor from the ash heap,
Psalm 118:27  The LORD is God and has given us light.
Psalm 138:6  The LORD is on high, but cares for the lowly and knows the proud from afar.
Psalm 145:13 The LORD is trustworthy in every word, and faithful in every work.
Psalm 145:14 The LORD supports all who are falling and raises up all who are bowed down.
Psalm 145:8 The LORD is gracious and merciful, slow to anger and abounding in love.
Psalm 145:9 The LORD is good to all, compassionate to every creature.
Psalm 146:7  The LORD sets prisoners free;
Psalm 146:8 the LORD gives sight to the blind. The LORD raises up those who are bowed down; the LORD loves the righteous.
Psalm 146:9  The LORD protects the stranger, sustains the orphan and the widow, but thwarts the way of the wicked.
Psalm 147:6  The LORD sustains the poor, but casts the wicked to the ground.

And that is a sampling of what the ancient Jews, without benefit of the Incarnation, believed about God. Mostly good news, I would say, except for the wicked, the arrogant,  and those who love violence.

More About Names of God

If you want to know more about the tetragrammaton, and names of God, keep reading.

YAHWEH is a guess on the pronunciation of YHWH, the four Hebrew consonants given to Moses as the name of God in Exodus, Chapter 3:13-14.

But,” said Moses to God, “if I go to the Israelites and say to them, ‘The God of your ancestors has sent me to you,’ and they ask me, ‘What is his name?’ what do I tell them?” 14 God replied to Moses: I am who I am.[h] Then he added: This is what you will tell the Israelites: I AM has sent me to you.

Below is a screen shot of the rather complicated explanation in the NABRE of the verses above (footnote h) and an explanation of the names Elohim, Adonai, and LORD. In particular note this: The word Lord (in small capital letters) indicates that the Hebrew text has the sacred name (Yhwh), the tetragrammaton. Also note the reference to the Church Fathers in the last sentence.

Note in the NABRE about names of God.

And, if you are extremely curious, Wikipedia has a very detailed tetragrammaton article which includes this chart of the frequency of its occurrence in the OT books. Note that Psalms comes in second only to Jeremiah and just ahead of Deuteronomy.

 

September 19th, 2018 – St. Januarius

St. Januarius

Here is information on St. Januarius. He is the patron saint of blood banks, and I am off this morning to the Red Cross Blood Center for my 111th blood donation since retirement.

Diocletian Persecution

St. Januarius lived, and was martyred, during the Diocletian persecution of the Church. Here is a somewhat difficult to read excerpt from Fox’s Book of Martyrs about that persecution.

Ecclesiology: Study of the Christian Church

As we think about the problems we, the Church, face today, consider the meaning of “ecclesiology. “Here is a document on The Ecclesiology of Vatican II  available at the EWTN website. Here is a quote from it: “If until that time (Vatican II) we had thought of the Church primarily as a structure or organization, now at last we began to realize that we ourselves were the Church.

Given that idea of us as the Church, here is my personal current interpretation. I’m not putting this forward as truth but just as testimony to encourage thinking about ecclesiology.

Added 9/21/18: Mass Readings today include this great passage on ecclesiology, St. Paul writing to the Christians in the Church at Ephesus: “So then you are no longer strangers and sojourners, but you are fellow citizens with the holy ones and members of the household of God, built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, with Christ Jesus himself as the capstone. Through him the whole structure is held together and grows into a temple sacred in the Lord; in him you also are being built together into a dwelling place of God in the Spirit.” – Ephesians 2:19-22

Bishop Barron Q&A Online

And, finally, yesterday Bishop Barron went online on reddit.com for a Q&A with anyone wanting to ask him a question. Many prominent persons have done the same on a Reddit feature called “Ask me Anything.” I’m sure it wore the Bishop out. His responses to the questions are worth reading HERE.

September 5, 2018 – Arrested Development

All About Spiritual Growth and Maturity
(Avoiding Arrested Development)
And Judging Pastors

Advice from Peter & Paul, and a Parable from Jesus,
All from the New American Bible (Revised Edition)

  • I fed you milk, not solid food, because you were unable to take it. Indeed, you are still not able, even now, for you are still of the flesh. While there is jealousy and rivalry among you, are you not of the flesh and behaving in an ordinary human way? Whenever someone says, “I belong to Paul,” and another, “I belong to Apollos,” are you not merely human? What is Apollos, after all, and what is Paul? Ministers through whom you became believers, just as the Lord assigned each one. I planted, Apollos watered, but God caused the growth. Therefore, neither the one who plants nor the one who waters is anything, but only God, who causes the growth. The one who plants and the one who waters are equal, and each will receive wages in proportion to his labor. – 1 Corinthians 3:2-8
  • But grow in grace and in the knowledge of our Lord and savior Jesus Christ. To him be glory now and to the day of eternity. – 2 Peter 3:18
  • Therefore, let us leave behind the basic teaching about Christ and advance to maturity, without laying the foundation all over again – Hebrews 6:1
  • As for the seed that fell among thorns, they are the ones who have heard, but as they go along, they are choked by the anxieties and riches and pleasures of life, and they fail to produce mature fruit. But as for the seed that fell on rich soil, they are the ones who, when they have heard the word, embrace it with a generous and good heart, and bear fruit through perseverance. – Luke 8:14-15
  • Rid yourselves of all malice and all deceit, insincerity, envy, and all slander;like newborn infants, long for pure spiritual milk so that through it you may grow into salvation, for you have tasted that the Lord is good.  Come to him, a living stone, rejected by human beings but chosen and precious in the sight of God, and, like living stones, let yourselves be built into a spiritual house to be a holy priesthood to offer spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ. – 1 Peter 2:1-5
  • Therefore, from the day we heard this, we do not cease praying for you and asking that you may be filled with the knowledge of his will through all spiritual wisdom and understanding to live in a manner worthy of the Lord, so as to be fully pleasing, in every good work bearing fruit and growing in the knowledge of God, – Colossians 1:9-10
  • So, as you received Christ Jesus the Lord, walk in him, rooted in him and built upon him and established in the faith as you were taught, abounding in thanksgiving. – Colossians 2:6-7
  • Although you should be teachers by this time, you need to have someone teach you again the basic elements of the utterances of God. You need milk, not solid food. Everyone who lives on milk lacks experience of the word of righteousness, for he is a child. But solid food is for the mature, for those whose faculties are trained by practice to discern good and evil. – Hebrews 5:12-14
  • When I was a child, I used to talk as a child, think as a child, reason as a child; when I became a man, I put aside childish things. – 1Corinthians 13:11
  • For this very reason, make every effort to supplement your faith with virtue, virtue with knowledge, knowledge with self-control, self-control with endurance, endurance with devotion, devotion with mutual affection, mutual affection with love. If these are yours and increase in abundance, they will keep you from being idle or unfruitful in the knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ. – 2 Peter 1:5-8
  • And he gave some as apostles, others as prophets, others as evangelists, others as pastors and teachers, to equip the holy ones for the work of ministry, for building up the body of Christ, until we all attain to the unity of faith and knowledge of the Son of God, to mature manhood, to the extent of the full stature of Christ, so that we may no longer be infants, tossed by waves and swept along by every wind of teaching arising from human trickery, from their cunning in the interests of deceitful scheming. Rather, living the truth in love, we should grow in every way into him who is the head, Christ,from whom the whole body, joined and held together by every supporting ligament, with the proper functioning of each part, brings about the body’s growth and builds itself up in love. – Ephesians 4:11-16
  • Be eager to present yourself as acceptable to God, a workman who causes no disgrace, imparting the word of truth without deviation. – 2 Timothy 2:15

Whadda Ya Think of Your Pastor?

Based on my decades in the Church, that is a common question asked of church members. Based on the above Sacred Scripture quotations, which answer is a good pastor most likely to want to overhear being given to that question?

  1. Oh, he is just WONderful!
  2. His homilies are short and sweet!
  3. He always visits people in the hospital.
  4. He has a great voice.
  5. I’ll be glad when he is gone.
  6. I learn from him and enjoy serving with him.

I’ll go with number 6 on my current pastor.

John Adams, Old St. Mary’s, Psalms, Gervais, and Huger

(Oops. I first titled this Sam Adams, et.al. rather than John Adams, et. al. Must have had beer on the brain. Sam and John were second cousins.)

This post is a bit off the beaten path but is about stuff I have run across recently that might be of special interest to a group of mature Catholic men. 

I just finished the incredible biography of John Adams by David McCullough, and that after reading about our nation’s  early years through the eyes of Hamilton, Jefferson, Burr, etc. Two passages in particular in the McCullough book seemed of interest to the MPG. First is a visit by Adams and Washington to St. Mary’s Catholic Church in Philadelphia in 1776. It is still there, now known as “Old St. Mary’s,” and you will find Adams and Washington mentioned on their current website. Here is a screen shot of a Kindle page from McCullough’s biography with Adams’s description of the visit. Of course he understood all the Latin.

Also, in the McCullough book is Adams’s testimony about his love of the Psalms. It seemed meaningful to me considering our focus on Psalms in Morning Prayer. I sometimes find myself just mouthing the words without considering the deep meanings, history, context, and beauty. Here, in another screen shot from the Kindle book, are Adams’s words, expressed after his long retirement from public service. (He lived to age 90 and died on the same day as Jefferson, July 4, 1826.)

And, on a lighter note, here are a couple of pertinent clips from today’s The State about two contemporaries of Adams, John Lewis Gervais and Isaac Huger.

This story just made me think how ironic it would be if The Basilica of St. Peter had been built at the corner of Gervais and Huger instead of at the corner of Assembly and Taylor.

Check out the Adams biography. It is an incredible look at our founding fathers and the issues and problems they faced. And, I’m putting Old St. Mary’s on my want list for Mass attendance on some future visit to Philadelphia.